Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is defined by a frequent and persistent pattern of anger, irritability, arguing, defiance or vindictiveness; aggressiveness and a tendency to purposefully bother and irritate others.
To be diagnosed as ODD, a person must display a pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least six months.
According to the respected Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) there are several emotional and behavioral symptoms that, when exhibited for at last at least six months, indicated Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD).
Angry and irritable mood:
Often and easily loses temper
Is frequently touchy and easily annoyed by others
Is often angry and resentful
Argumentative and defiant behavior:
Often argues with people in authority
Often actively defies or refuses to comply with requests or rules
Often deliberately annoys or upsets people
Often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior
Is often spiteful or vindictive
Has shown spiteful or vindictive behavior at least twice in the past six months
No single cause of ODD has been identified. It is believed that a combination of biological, genetic, and environmental factors may contribute to the condition. Causes of ODD in Children and Teens
Biological Causes of ODD
Injuries or defects in certain areas of the brain can lead to serious behavioral problems in children according to some studies. Abnormal functioning of neurotransmitters has also been associated with Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Many children with ODD also have other mental illnesses, such as ADHD, Learning Disorders, Depression, or an Anxiety Disorder.
Genetic Causes of ODD
Many children and adolescents with Oppositional Defiant Disorder have close family members with mental illnesses, including Mood Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, and Personality Disorders; suggesting a susceptibility to develop ODD may be inherited.
Environmental Causes of ODD
A dysfunctional family life, a family history of mental illness or substance abuse, and inconsistent discipline by parents may contribute to the development of behavior disorders.
Treatment for Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Treatment for ODD involves individual and family therapy.